Characterization is the final major step in a
root-cause of the failure. This stage involves inspecting
the isolated areas of the die to find the responsible
defect. The information is ranged in two columns:
Publication and Tools.
: the technical paper from laboratory, research centre
and public internet source; the technical note
from industry, fabricant; the research result report
from university, etc.
: information for the tools which could be used in
this step; the tools' introduction and use notes
from industry and fabricant, etc.