and On-line Publications,
including conferences, symposias,
including FA manufacturers
and service societies, R & D laboratories
in industries and in universities.
FA, including general introduction on FA
techniques and process.
hyperlinks in both electronic and other domains
all stuff have been classed according to the four steps in FA process.
is the measurement of all relevant electrical parameters and
it is a critical part of systematic failure analysis.
Preparation is an
intermediate process step that must be completed before
the localization and characterization of faults.
is to isolate the exact physical
location of the failsite.
is the final major step in a
root-cause of the failure. This stage involves inspecting
the isolated areas of the die to find the responsible